In the months following the enactment of California’s historic 2011 criminal justice realignment legislation, local governments have undoubtedly faced significant challenges. While it is too early to determine any successes of realignment, if fully and permanently funded, it has the opportunity to successfully cut costs, improve local law enforcement supervision, and improve offender outcomes. From a population management perspective, one of the most notable impacts is the increase in jail populations from the influx of realigned offenders since October 1st. In the planning stage for realignment, the California Department of Finance (DOF) made estimates for population increases that sheriffs’ departments could expect as a result of realigned inmate populations including new offenders and parole violators. A significant number of counties have reported jail population increases at a much higher rate than were expected based on DOF projections. It is possible this is the result of a short-term bubble or it could be a sign of something more troubling and systemic.